|Breast CAD | Chest CAD | Lung Dis CT | XCAT-MOBY-ROBY | Breast Models | FE Cardiac Model|
|Quant. Image | Emerg. Quant. Imaging | Perf. Metrology | Clinical Trials | Emerg. Clinical
XCAT, MOBY and ROBY Phantom Series
As new imaging techniques and diagnostic methods emerge in response to disease, a major challenge is how to evaluate which technique is best in terms of patient diagnosis and treatment. It is essential for the advancement of emerging imaging systems to have a tool that can be used for technique testing, evaluation, and comparison. It would not be feasible to test every combination of scanning parameters and every clinical task on patients under clinical conditions, especially for x-ray systems given the relatively high radiation dose. The use of physical phantoms is also limited in that it would be prohibitively expensive to fabricate physical phantoms to simulate a realistic range of patient sizes especially when physiologic motion needs to be considered. The only practical approach to optimization and evaluation is through realistic computer simulation.
Computer simulation involves computational phantoms and models of the imaging process. Computer phantoms define the subject's anatomy and physiology. Given a model of the physics of the imaging process, acquired data of a computer phantom can be generated as if it were an actual live subject. The major advantage to using computer-generated phantoms in simulation studies is that the exact anatomy and physiological functions are known, thus providing a gold standard from which to quantitatively evaluate, improve, and compare medical imaging devices and techniques.
Highly realistic phantoms are required in order for simulation results to have merit. Without this, the results of the simulation may not be indicative of what would occur in actual patients or animal subjects. Dr. Paul Segars has been leading the development of realistic computational phantoms for use in medical imaging research. Foremost among these are the 4D extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT), the Mouse Whole-Body (MOBY), and Rat Whole-Body (ROBY) phantoms.